When project delays occur, contractors may need to request a time extension. Time extension negotiation is usually done between contractors and owners. On the contractor’s side, they’ll need to provide documentation of the delay. This will show the owners the impact the delay will have on the project. If the owners decide that the delay is significant, they may approve a time extension for the project.

One way that contractors can document the effect of a delay is through Time Impact Analysis. This is a method of quantifying the effect that a delay will have on a project’s schedule and budget before it occurs. This analysis will show whether a delay will lead to significant change in the project’s duration, finish date, or cost. The more significant the delay, the more likely the owner is to approve extensions.

In Oracle Primavera Cloud (OPC), you can perform time impact analysis easily. The program has a variety of built-in tools to make this process efficient. Through Baselines, you can model delay with a fragnet while keeping project data safe. Then, using the Schedule Comparison tool, you can quantify the effects of the delay on the project. Within minutes, you’ll have enough information to negotiate a time extension.

In this article, we will overview how to perform time impact analysis in Oracle Primavera Cloud. This demonstration will feature creating baselines, creating fragnets, and performing schedule comparisons.

What is Time Impact Analysis?

Time Impact Analysis (TIA) is a method of forecasting the effect that a delay will have on a project. This method involves adding activities to a schedule to represent the delay. These delay activities are often added as a fragnet – which is another word for a fragmented network of activities. Fragnets are sets of linked activities that show additions, deletions, and modifications to the current schedule data. Once a fragnet for the delay is added to the schedule, you’ll be able to analyze the impact that it will have on the project’s duration, completion, and budget. This impact data is key, as you will use it to negotiate time extensions for the project. The more information the contractor can give about the effect of the delay, the more likely that a time extension will be approved.

3 Steps for Time Impact Analysis

There are 3 basic steps to performing Time Impact Analysis:

  1. Identify which schedule update to place the delay into. This generally will be the last accepted schedule update before the impact date. You will want to make sure you have a copy of the project before the delay – either as a baseline or an export. You will use this original schedule data to compare with the delayed schedule data.

  2. Create a model of the delay in the form of a fragnet. To create a fragnet, add activities to model the schedule delay. Then, tie the activities together with logic to create a sequence of activities.
  1. Place the fragnet into the project schedule to create the delayed schedule. You will need to determine where to place the fragnet within the project to analyze the effect of the delay. This can sometimes be tricky, depending on your goal. For example, if you add the fragnet to a non-critical activity, you may not see any change within the project’s duration. If you’re looking to receive a time extension, you should tie your fragnet to a critical activity. This will add duration to your project for the delay, making it more likely that the time extension gets approved.

How to Perform Time Impact Analysis in Oracle Primavera Cloud

To start with, open up the last schedule update before the delay is set to occur. This should be the last accepted update prior to the delay’s start. Navigate to the Activities screen by selecting Schedule > Activities.

Creating a Baseline for Comparison

Before creating the fragnet, you’ll want to have a record of the schedule as it is now. That way, you’ll be able to compare the delayed schedule with the current one to quantify the difference. You can do this by exporting the project, or by creating a baseline. To create a baseline for the open project, select Actions > Add Baseline.

Give the baseline a name, and ensure that the Source is set to Current Schedule. This will create this baseline as a copy of the current schedule. You can choose a Type if desired. I recommend using either the Current or Original as the Type. If this is your first baseline, you’ll only have the option of Original.
Then, select Add.

Adding Baseline Bars

With the baseline created, you may want to add baseline bars to the Gantt Chart. This will allow you to visually compare the delayed dates with the original dates. To add baseline bars to the Gantt Chart, select the Views > Manage Views. You can choose to create a new view, or simply edit the current one. With the desired view selected in the left box, select the Bars tab. Then, select Add > Bar.
A new bar will appear on the screen. Select the bar, and select the Bar Type dropdown. Here, select the baseline type that you had used for your baseline. I’ll select Current Baseline to match the baseline I just created. You can also change the color and size of the bar if you would like. Then, select Save, and Apply.
The baseline bars will appear on the Gantt chart underneath the current bars. At this point, both bars will display the same dates. However, once you add the fragnet, the current bars will change to display the delayed dates.

Creating a Fragnet

Next, you will create a fragnet to represent the delay. As mentioned prior, a fragnet is a fragmented network of activities. It’s a set of chained tasks that you will add to the project schedule to show the additional time required.
I recommend first creating a WBS layer to host the fragnet activities. This will allow you to keep them organized from other activities in the schedule. To create a WBS layer, select Schedule > WBS.
You can add a WBS layer for the fragnet anywhere you’d like, but I recommend adding it to the top of the WBS hierarchy. I’ll create a new WBS layer right underneath the project layer by right clicking on it and selecting Add Child. I’ll name this layer Fragnet. The layer will appear at the bottom of the WBS hierarchy. To move the layer up to the top, select the context gear and press Move Up until it’s under the project layer.

On the Activities page, you can now create the fragnet with activities and logic. To add new activities to the project, select the associated WBS layer and press Add.

In this example, our team realized that we need to add scope to the structure’s construction. To model this change, I’ll add four activities to the Fragnet WBS layer. For each added activity, adjust the Name, Duration, and Calendar to represent the needed work. I’ll add the following activities:

  • Add Scope, 2 days of duration
  • Design, 10 days of duration
  • Procure, 20 days of duration
  • Construction, 15 days of duration

If you’re concerned with the associated costs for the delay, you may also want to assign resources to these activities.

Next, you’ll need to tie the activities together with logic to show their sequence. To add logic, use the Relationships tab in the details section and press Assign in either the Predecessor/Successor side. Find the activity that should be linked to the selected one, and press the + button. The relationships panel will stay open and can be used to assign relationships to other selected activities as well.
If your activities are sequential, you can also assign logic by right clicking. To do this, select the activities in the order that they’ll be performed. In my example, I’ll select this group of tasks by selecting Add Scope, holding down SHIFT, and selecting Construction. With all four activities selected, right click and select Link Activities. All selected activities will link together in the sequence they were selected. This fragnet now has the following order: Add Scope > Design > Procure > Construction.

You should now have a little network of logical activities – otherwise known as a fragnet.

Adding the Fragnet to the Project Schedule

The most crucial step in time impact analysis is adding the fragnet to the rest of the project schedule. It is up to the scheduler to determine where these activities will go within the project’s logic. If you are looking to get a time extension, you will want to focus on the critical activities. The reason for performing time impact analysis is to show delay’s impact on the schedule. If you tie your fragnet to a non-critical activity, you may not see much duration change from the original project. On the other hand, when you tie the fragnet to critical activities, the project duration will increase – making it more likely that the time extension is approved. You’ll also need to make sure fragnet’s placement is logical. The fragnet should be set to precede the first activity that can not take place until the delay has occurred.

In my example, I’ll set the fragnet to take place after Strip Slab but before Erect Structural Steel. This will ensure that the delay takes before the building envelope and dry wall begins. To do this, I’ll select Strip Slab from the table, and navigate to the Relationships tab in the details section. I’ll select Assign in the Successors side of the table and assign Add Scope. That takes care of the start of the fragnet, but I also need to determine what will follow it. In the same way, I’ll assign Construction as a predecessor to Erect Structural Steel. Now, the fragnet is a part of the schedule’s driving logic.

With the fragnet tied to the project, you will need to schedule it to see the changes. To schedule the project, select Schedule, and then Schedule.
After scheduling, my fragnet is now a part of the critical path.

Documenting the Delay

With the delay added to the schedule, you can now see its effect. In order to submit a time extension, you’ll want to provide as much information as you can about the delay’s effect. Specifically, you’ll want to note the delay’s effect on the project’s duration, finish date, and cost.
Some of these changes are obvious from the Gantt Chart. With the baseline bars, you can visually compare the delayed dates with the original dates. If the baseline bar is to the left of the current bar, the activity is running behind. If the baseline bar is to the right of the current bar, the activity is running ahead.
You could also baseline columns to the table by using the Add Column button. Any columns you add to the table should match the baseline type you created earlier. In my example, I created a Current Baseline. For comparison, I’ll add the Current BL Duration, Current BL Finish, and Current BL Finish – Variance columns to the table. By comparing these columns with the current project’s columns, I can see that the delay has added 47 days to the duration. Now, the project’s finish date is set for December 22nd, up from the original finish of October 18th.
You can also get this information, and more, from the Schedule Comparison page.
The Schedule Comparison page enables you to perform schedule variance analysis. This is a process of comparing two schedule versions to review the changes between them. You can compare the current schedule with baselines, scenarios, or any specific point in time since the project’s creation.
To access the Schedule Comparison page, select Schedule > Schedule Comparison.
In the Compare Schedule Versions window, select the two schedule versions to compare. For Source Schedule, choose the baseline taken before the delay. For Comparison Schedule, select Current Schedule. Then, select Compare.
Once complete, the comparison will display on the page. For each activity, you can see the current schedule data, the baseline data and the variance between the two. There are columns here for Start, Finish, and Duration. For each activity, we can compare the original schedule data with the delayed project’s data.
You can add additional columns to the comparison table by selecting the wrench icon. Here, you can adjust the view to display any values you want to compare.
From this page, you can also create a schedule comparison report. This spreadsheet report will document all the changes between the two schedule versions. To create this report, select Actions > Export. Once completed, you’ll receive a notification with a link to download the report.

With this comparison report, you now have a good case for your time extension. It’s useful to provide the owner with as much information as you can on the delay’s effect. Specifically, make sure to show the changes between finish dates, durations, and costs (if relevant). With Oracle Primavera Cloud, you can generate this information in seconds. Now, you’ll be able to negotiate time extensions with the owner in no time.

If you have any comments, questions or suggestions, please use the comment section on the bottom of this page, and don’t forget to subscribe to our blog to get more Oracle Primavera Cloud tips & tricks directly in your inbox!

Lauren Hecker is an Oracle Primavera Cloud Instructor and teaches onsite and virtual Oracle Primavera Cloudcourses. To see her next open enrollment course, please visit our OPC page. To schedule an onsite or custom course, please contact us!


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